Gallic Wars, (58–50 bce ), campaigns in which the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# Caesar's first maneuver is to send his cavalry to meet that of the enemy. He allows himself to be bribed by the Arverni and shares the bribe with Litaviccus and his brothers, telling them that the Aedui are the only force preventing the victory of Gaul; if the Aedui join the rebels, the Romans will be beaten. Clearing a roadway through six feet of snow in the Cevennes mountains is a massive feat when one considers that it had to be done by manual labor. Caesar learns that Vercingetorix has moved nearer Avaricum because he is out of forage and that he plans an ambush for the next day. All the Gallic leaders then convene at Bibracte to discuss the dispute and the body votes that Vercingetorix continue as leader. Meanwhile, Vercingetorix had thousands of cavalry from the Aedui and Segusiani. They form in wedges in the town's open places, ready to fight when the Romans come down the walls, but the Romans fail to descend. Caesar reaches Gergovia in five days. When he gives the signal to move, he also sends the Aedui under his command up another side of the hill. If he keeps his legions in one place, defections mount and soon all Gaul will revolt as it becomes apparent that Rome is powerless to stop the rebellions. For a year, two men — Convictolitavis and Cotus — have both claimed legal right as chief magistrate, and the state is divided, each man having his following. LibriVox recording of Commentaries on the Gallic War, by Gaius Julius Caesar. Arriving in Italy, Caesar learns that the senate has decreed that all young men of military age should be drafted, so he decides to enroll soldiers in Cisalpine Gaul. Caesar, meantime, spends a few days in Avaricum, letting his army feast on the supplies they find there, but before he can formulate battle plans, the Aedui come for help concerning a matter of internal politics. They report that Litaviccus has gone with his cavalry to incite the Aedui and say that they must go and try to get ahead of him so that they can maintain the loyalty of the Aeduan people. The hillside, at the end the enemy attacks, is open because Caesar would have had to enclose the entire hill to complete his entrenchments. Since the people of Noviodunum were going back on their word, Caesar attacked. While he is gone, he leaves young Brutus in charge with orders to let the cavalry operate as far and wide as possible and says that he will return in three days. The enemy does not pursue, and in three days the Roman army reaches the river Allier, rebuilds the bridge and crosses over. He moves his forces inside the city to await the new troops from Gaul. Caesar's very competent legate, Labienus, found himself surrounded by two newly rebelling groups and so needed to move out his troops by stealth. On the other side, Vercingetorix' troops from the town fill the Roman trenches in order to cross over, but this task takes too long and by the time they are ready, they find that their allies on the far side of the Roman camp have already retreated; thus, they too must withdraw. He had to figure out how to reach the main forces without putting them in danger. Meanwhile, Convictolitanis, the man Caesar had chosen to be king of the Aedui, treacherously conferred with the Arverni, who told him that the Aeduans holding out was preventing the allied Gauls from being victorious against the Romans. Once more, when the dispatches of Caesar's mighty victories reach Rome, the senate proclaims a public thanksgiving of twenty days. One of Gaul's most colorful historical figures is Vercingetorix, who acted as war chief for all the Gallic tribes who were trying to throw off the Roman yoke during the Gallic Wars. Tribes which Caesar has fought earlier, and many with whom he has been at peace, combine and try their luck against the mighty Roman general. They send for Vercingetorix to save them now that the war has gone against them, and he turns from his battle with the Bituriges and speeds toward the Arverni. He sent other troops against the Helvii whom he defeated while he led his mena and allies against the Allobroges. He falsely claimed the Romans had killed some of their favorite leaders. Caesar then sends one legion in the same direction, stops it part way, and hides it in the woods. Although he clearly had much first-hand contact with Celts, some scholars believe that he also drew upon Posidonius. Especially during the winter when there was little to forage, having food could decide the outcome of a battle. The Gauls have archers mixed with their cavalry and these, for a time, check the Romans. They too have an able intelligence staff and have learned of Caesar's approach and have hidden the wagons and baggage in nearby dense woods. Note, too, that later when Caesar chastises them, he makes sure that he also spends much time encouraging them; he knows that a group of soldiers who are beaten, and then told by their leader that it was because of their own foolishness, is not a group that will be an effective fighting force. Nor do the Treveri attend, for they are too far distant, and are at war with the Germans. Then, to insure more than verbal agreement from them, Vercingetorix orders that hostages, soldiers, and weapons be delivered to him; his command is most strict and non-compliers are mutilated or killed. From there, Caesar sent word to the other legions of the danger presented by Vercingetorix, ordering them to come to his assistance ASAP. Because of the darkness, it is hard to tell how much damage is being done, but many men are injured and killed. Caesar followed, killing those he could. No longer are the residents of Noviodunum as fearful of the Romans; they take up arms again and try to close their gates; manning their walls at the same time, they hope to reclaim their city from the Roman invaders. Thus, after his lecture, he compliments them equally on their bravery and lets them fight a few minor battles to regain their confidence. The following night the Gauls attack the Roman camp and when the troops in town hear the shouting, Vercingetorix leads them out to join in the fighting. And, next day, as a heavy rain drenches his legions, he observes that the guard on the wall is less than usual. The Gauls are panic-stricken. Many hostages are then taken and the legions are sent into winter quarters. ... BOOK 7 : THE YEAR 52 15 ... 7 Summary. Later, he marches downstream with his other three legions and goes to meet the boats. I.--Gaul being tranquil, Caesar, as he had determined, sets out for ... begin to organize their plans for war more openly and daringly. He fights until all his men, including himself, are annihilated. Camulogenus therefore splits his army into three parts; a guard is left opposite the Roman camp, a small group goes upstream as far as the smaller boats; the rest go against Labienus. Labienus, meanwhile, leaves the new recruits at Agedincum to guard the equipment and moves his four legions to Lutetia (Paris), but is pitted against Camulogenus, an old but superior soldier. Caesar is hesitant to leave the war, but knows that if the Aeduan dispute is not settled, the losing party will probably join Vercingetorix. Caesar then moves to the town of Cenabum, whose inhabitants have heard of the siege of Vellaunodunum and have prepared their garrison. Because of this, allied towns that weren't potential enemies at one's back might still be destroyed to make sure the enemy army starved or retreated. The two armies pitched their camps on opposite banks and Caesar rebuilds a bridge. He headed towards Gergovia, providing protection for some Roman citizens on the way. Instead a solemn oath is taken. En route, at the Senones' town of Vellaunodunum, Caesar decided to attack so there wouldn't be an enemy on his heels. They charge the town's wall. He is between two enemy forces and knows that his role can shift from attacker to defender if things do not go well, so he must be especially crafty and thus, to make sure an enemy attack cannot reach his lines too quickly, he takes the added precaution of planting traps outside his trench. The battle continues at close quarters, the enemy depending on position and numbers, the Romans on their bravery. They rush to save the structure, but are confronted by the enemy rushing from two gates at once; at the same time men on the wall begin to hurl pitch and burning wood onto the ramp. The town is on a great height and is difficult to approach, so he knows he cannot take it by storm. c. iulius caesar (100 – 44 b.c.) This is particularly ingenious because, once overlapped, the whole wall is reinforced and cannot be battered or pulled down. The fortifications were not just a means to contain those within. When Eporedorix and Viridomarus arrive, they find ruins. Now, grouped together on high ground, they wait. But Caesar, although he had not as yet discovered their measures, yet, both from what had occurred to his ships, and from the circumstance that they had neglected to give the promised hostages, suspected that the thing would come to pass which really did happen. Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by the chieftain Vercingetorix, in 52 bce. He marched towards Caesar who was beginning a siege of Noviodunum. The Gauls pass news of the war from field to field and by evening the story of the attack reaches Arverni, about 160 miles away. Teutomatus, king of the Nitiobriges, whose father Ollovico had been a friend of Rome, joins Vercingetorix and brings with him a large cavalry force, some his own people and others hired from Aquitania. By long marches he gets to the Loire and finds a place shallow enough for the troops to wade across, then with the cavalry helping break the force of the river, the entire army gets safely across. He then took supreme command. Lucterius is thus stopped and Caesar moves into the land of the Helvii, but is confronted by a mountain range, the Cevennes, separating the Arverni from the Helvii. Distressed that his cavalry has been destroyed, Vercingetorix begins to move the rest of his army toward Alesia, a town of the Mandubii. The Arverni and allies divided into three groups to attack. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, which is the main source for the conflict but is considered to be unreliable at best by modern historians. He further asks the Aedui and the Segusiavi to supply 10,000 infantry and 800 cavalry. The Aedui, as we see when Caesar visits them, are easily confused and led astray, and we are prepared for their irrational attacks on the Romans. Literature Network » Julius Caesar » The Gallic Wars » Book VII. Just before dawn, however, the enemy gets reports of the Roman movements and decides that the legions are probably crossing in three places. This period of revolt follows the earlier Gallic battles at Bibracte, Vosges, and Sabis. Of the two, then, Caesar decides that the lack of food is preferable to the disgrace of not being able to protect his allies, so he tells the Aedui to transport the supplies for his army, then informs the Boii that he is on the march. He orders each state to supply certain numbers of soldiers and requests that all archers be brought to him. Each morning, he meets with the various chiefs in council, then exercises the troops. Caesar's defense is immediate. A few Roman cohorts left the fortifications and circled round to the rear of the outer enemy whom they surprised and slaughtered when they tried to flee. The natives of Transalpine Gaul, meanwhile, hear of his decision and spread rumors that the general is detained in Rome and cannot join his army. That night the cavalry goes after the retreating Gauls, catches the rear guard and kills or captures many. Vercingetorix saw what had happened and gave up, surrendering himself and his weapons. Caesar is most deserving of the twenty-day thanksgiving proclaimed by the senate. Vercingetorix calls a council and says he will do whatever they think best: they may kill him to please the Romans or they may surrender and present him to the enemy alive. On the agreed date, the Carnutes, led by Cotuatus and Conconnetodumnus, strike. He sends the small boats upstream and instructs them to make much noise also. In Vercingetorix' case, the chiefs of the tribe are opposed to his plans, hut he manages to organize his own army, dispose of the chiefs, and revolt against Rome. This is what Vercingetorix would soon develop as one of his main policies. Since it was winter, foraged provisions were hard to come by and the Romans would have to leave. Caesar, meanwhile, is sure of success; in only a short time the town will be his. Fighting continues throughout the night. 2 - Caesar's Gallic War: Complete Edition, Including Seven Books by Julius Caesar. We can be fairly sure that many of the Gallic leaders involved are interested in personal power rather than political freedom for their people. Caesar's assault position is inside a double ring of fortifications. Commentaries on the Gallic War Gaius Julius CAESAR (100 - 44 BCE) , translated by Thomas Rice HOLMES (1855 - 1933) Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Then he goes forward to encourage his troops. 55 B.C. Arriving in Italy, Caesar learns that the senate has decreed that all young men of military age should be drafted, so he decides to enroll soldiers in Cisalpine Gaul. This quality is also observe4 when he gives the German horsemen the mounts his men have been using; he wants the Germans to have the best horses available. Labienus then returns to Agendincum, picks up the baggage, and proudly marches to meet Caesar. 1 Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius being consuls [54 B.C. Later Vercingetorix would be displayed as a prize in Caesar's triumph of 46 B.C. When the Germans started to kill the Averni, they fled. At the signal, the Roman troops quickly cross the wall and take three camps. Women climb atop the wall and with bared breasts plead for mercy, for they have heard that the women and children at Avaricum were killed. Next day he reaches Vellaunodunum, which he decides to capture so there will be no enemy at his rear and so the food supplies can move safely after him. A few, probably 800, manage to get to Vercingetorix, but the Romans troops kill the rest. His men are enthusiastic and swear an oath that they will not return home until they pass twice through Caesar's column. In the meantime, he instructs the men behind the mantlets to prepare themselves. In a cavalry battle the next day, the united Romans and the German cavalry manage to kill great numbers and put to flight many more. They also build up the scaffolding on their walls to keep it on a level with the Roman turrets. He takes all of the enemy prisoner, including Vercingetorix. The Gauls try to escape during the night and reach Vercingetorix' camp but are once again unsuccessful, for the men of the town are given away by the screams and moans of their wives, begging them not to leave. By this time the Gauls realized their freedom was at stake and having the Romans around to arbitrate and help them against other invaders meant the loss of freedom and heavy demands in terms of soldiers and supplies. Book VII. There he receives intelligence of the death of Clodius; and, being informed of the decree of the senate, [to the effect] that all the youth of Italy should take the military oath, he determined to hold a levy throughout the entire province. Late one night the Romans see smoke coming from the ramp and realize that the enemy has set it afire from a tunnel. The next day, the Gauls attacked from both sides. By peaceful means or by attacking, he added troops from the Gallic tribes of the Senones (the tribe connected with the band of Gauls responsible for the sack of Rome in 390 B.C. His men then tortured and killed the Romans under their protection. He fears their coming into the main camp and starting a mutiny. Thus he travels to the Aedui, hears the conflicting claims and makes his decision: Cotus must give up his claim; Convictolitavis is the legally elected magistrate. Marcus Petronius, a centurion in the same legion, tries to cut down a gate but is overwhelmed. Marcus Antonius and Gaius Trebonius, in charge of the defense of the sections under attack, take soldiers from areas not being attacked and have them move behind the defenders to help wherever possible. These he sets under the command of Eporedorix' brother, and sends them to fight the Allobroges. Vercingetorix had used the Roman system of demanding hostages to ensure loyalty and ordered a levy of troops from each of these groups. Noviodunum ambassadors begged Caesar to pardon them and spare them. Labienus then led his men to join Caesar. It is a first hand account of the final titanic struggle between two nations, one fighting for … Winners and Losers of Julius Caesar's Gallic War Battles, Roman Empire: Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, Meaning Behind the Phrase to Cross the Rubicon, Valens and the Battle of Adrianople (Hadrianopolis), 60-50 B.C. Caesar hears of the attacks and, because the difficulties in Rome are solved, he heads for Transalpine Gaul. The diversion, besides providing relief from the battle scenes, also prepares us for the jealousy within the tribe and figures in the betrayal later. Title. The leading men of Gaul, having convened councils among themselves in the ... no summary available yet. Vercingetorix boasts that he and he alone is responsible for this; how, then, dare his men accuse him of treachery? The Helvii attempt to fight the enemy but are finally conquered and their chief, Gaius Valerius Donnotaurus is killed. If a property lacked a good defense it would be burned. They do not get through the trench and, at daybreak, decide to pull back. The rumors do just that. The men on both sides fight even more bravely than usual because they know they are being watched by both sides, and the fight lasts from noon to sunset before the Germans mass and charge so violently that the enemy must retreat. The revolt begins when the Gauls hear of the political turmoil in Rome. By various contrivances, meanwhile, the Gauls in town attempt to undo the siege apparatus assembled by Caesar's troops. One side faces the town, the other protects the Roman rear. They attack Cenabum, kill the Romans there and plunder the Roman property stored in the town. The Gauls, thirsting for victory, sweep closer to the Roman lines and, in the darkness, fall into the traps Caesar had prepared; others are injured by pikes thrown from the walls. He then moves to aid Labienus, who has pulled back four cohorts and sent the horsemen around the wall to attack the rear of the enemy units who harass the hill side of the Roman entrenchment. Vercingetorix, in the city, sees the Romans under full attack, so moves out with all the machinery his men need to cross the Roman trenches. If the Romans moved by chance, he says, then the Gauls may thank fortune, and if they moved because of an informer, the Gauls should thank the informer- now they know how few in number the Romans are and that they are reluctant to fight Vercingetorix. Vercingetorix broke down all bridges over the river, but this proved only a temporary set-back for the Romans. He is to bring his troops to the foot of the hill and stop the enemy if they pursue the Roman troops. Thus he soon raises a large army and sends Lucterius with a part of his army to the land of the Ruteni; the others he takes to battle against the Bituriges. By the end of Book VII Caesar has put down the Gallic revolt. - Caesar, Crassus and Pompey and The First Triumvirate, M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota. Twenty-two cohorts drafted from the province are set to oppose the enemy. They also confiscate the property of Litaviccus and his brothers and send deputies to Caesar to clear themselves. And, since the Gauls have many horsemen, they can easily outnumber and surround Roman foraging parties. The wily leader and his dependents escape, however, before they can be dealt with. Vercingetorix marched his troops there in order to defend his people. But one link in their defense fails: one of the grease and pitch throwers loses his position on the wall and the Romans are quick to overpower the opening. As the towns are destroyed, there is much mourning, but the pain of loss is compensated for by the hope of recovering their losses by overcoming the Romans. He added the Nitiobriges and Gabali and then headed to Narbo, which was in the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul, so Caesar headed to Narbo, which made Lucterius retreat. Knowing that he must fight a major battle before the enemy can assemble larger forces, Caesar moves quickly. The Gallic Wars In 58 BCE, Caesar headed for Gaul, a region roughly encompassing present-day France and Belgium and parts of the Netherlands. Hearing that Caesar is cutting a bloody path toward him, Vercingetorix leaves the attack against the Boii and turns to meet the Romans. Caesar dismissed two important Aeduans, Viridomarus and Eporedorix, who went to the Aeduan town of Noviodunum on the Loire, where they learned that further negotiations were being made between the Aeduans and the Arvernians. This period of revolt follows the earlier Gallic battles at Bibracte, Vosges, and Sabis. Vercingetorix, however, gathers more recruits, and in turn drives the officials out of the state. They hope desperately that the Romans will not be able to stay in the area if there is a great scarcity of food or perhaps even better, that the Romans will go far afield and be easy to pick off. Many were killed but they still did not stop. ], Caesar, when departing from his winter quarters into Italy, as he had been accustomed to do yearly, commands the lieutenants whom he appointed over the legions to take care that during the winter as many ships as possible should be built, and the old repaired. 7 In the mean time Lucterius the Cadurcan, having been sent into the country of the Ruteni, gains over that state to the Arverni. Vercingetorix then led his army to Alesia. Caesar changed his direction and advanced into the territory of the Helvii, then on to the borders of the Arverni. Caesar's troops found ample provisions, and by this time winter was almost over. Caesar offers to give up the siege if the men are too troubled by the lack of food, but the Romans refuse, preferring temporary hunger to dishonor. Naturally they had thought the snow was impenetrable. Vercingetorix decides that it is time to lead his men back inside the fortifications and the day ends. As soon as Caesar is informed, he has the town's gates burned and sends in the waiting legions. After the upbraiding, he reminds them that they should never consider the enemy braver than they simply because the enemy has won a skirmish on unfavorable ground. They cannot manage entry through their small gate openings and many are killed by the German swordsmen. Lucius Fabius and his three men are killed and thrown from the wall. The Romans are indeed in trouble, but the Tenth Legion prevents the Gauls from pursuing the harried soldiers and, when they reach level ground, they turn and face the enemy. Caesar besieged the town for 27 days building towers and walls while the Gauls built countering devices. All of Caesar's skills — being prepared, moving quickly, and taking advantage — are more important in this book than anywhere else; this widespread Gallic rebellion is his greatest challenge. Vercingetorix, son of Celtillus, a member of the Gallic tribe of Arverni, sent ambassadors out to Gallic tribes not yet allied with him asking them to join him in his endeavor to get rid of the Romans. All rights reserved. The Romans are tired by their long charge and, unfortunately, are also outnumbered. The Gauls from outside attacked at night by throwing things from a distance and alerting Vercingetorix to their presence. He then urges the Aedui to forget all disputes and concentrate on the war. The rest of the enemy forces disperse to their respective states. That done, he sends Labienus with four legions against the Senones and the Parisii; the other six he takes to Gergovia in the country of the Arverni. He cannot change his original plan for it would be difficult to get through the mountains, but he is anxious about Labienus and his legions. The Gauls become suspicious and bring all their force to the area to defend it. The company manages to rout the enemy unit facing it, but on the other side of the line of battle, the Twelfth Legion faces a particularly brave enemy that refuses to retreat even though many are killed and wounded. When they reached Alesia, the Romans surrounded the hilltop city. During the burning, there is debate concerning the burning of Avaricum — the finest city in all Gaul — and although Vercingetorix strongly believes that it too should be destroyed, he finally yields to the arguments defending the city's survival. Fires are finally put out and fighting stops. The allies were appeased and supplied Vercingetorix with replacement troops for those he had lost. The Gauls decide against gathering together all men available, for that would strain the food supply and also create a force difficult to discipline. Vercingetorix suggested a scorched-earth policy. These people go to the Roman lines and beg to be taken in as slaves, but Caesar refuses to admit them. Next day the Roman general calls a parade and reprimands the troops for failing to obey orders; he describes the disadvantages of being positioned on unfavorable ground and, although he admires their courage, he stresses that bravery does not substitute for discipline and self-restraint. commentariorum libri vii de bello gallico cum a. hirti supplemento He must also get his army safely to Agedincum. But, in spite of the Gallic counter-measures, the Romans manage within 25 days to build a ramp 330 feet wide and 80 feet high. Caesar, meanwhile, sets up defensive units on both sides of his entrenchment and sends the cavalry out to fight. When they were near Gergovia, Litavicus riled up his troops against the Romans. AU $57.45 item 3 Caesar's Gallic War: Complete Edition, Including Seven Books. The Bituriges fearfully ask the Aedui for help and the Aedui, on the advice of the Romans, send infantry and cavalry. They stay atop the wall and call for more Romans to join them. Caesar ordered their weapons, horses, and hostages. Agreements are made accordingly: the Carnutes offer to begin the warfare, and since the tribes all want to keep their plans secret, they realize that they cannot take the risk of exchanging hostages, so all take an oath of honor not to betray one another. He seems, at times, to be almost unduly humane. When Vercingetorix learned what Caesar was doing, he headed back to the Biturgies and then to the non-allied Boiian town of Gergovia in order to attack it. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Caesar, however, arrives there in two days, before their preparations are complete, but he arrives too late in the day to begin battle, so he camps for the night and posts two legions under arms in case the people try to escape by crossing the Loire. They immediately flee to Aristius, claiming that the state had nothing to do with all that has happened, and they order an inquiry. Next This inspired the people of Noviodunum to take up arms and shut the gates, backing down from their surrender. Caesar knows that the enemy has superior cavalry and that he cannot get help from the province or Italy, so he sends for cavalry and infantry from the German tribes with whom he has made peace. Book Summary: The title of this book is The Landmark Julius Caesar: The Complete Works and it was written by Kurt A. Raaflaub (Editor), Robert B. Strassler (Series Editor). They pledge safe passage to Marcus Aristius, saying that he may leave the town of Cabillonum, and that the traders who had settled there must also go, but as soon as they start out, the Aedui attack and take all equipment and baggage, then blockade them for a day and a night. Adrian Goldsworthy says an estimated 700 Roman soldiers and 46 centurions were killed. His uncle, Gobannitio, and the other chiefs try to stop him, but unable to dissuade him, they finally drive him from town. Then he allows his army a night rest of three hours before moving back to Gergovia. Caesar is greatly disturbed, for he has always favored the Aedui and he immediately marches four legions out of camp. The time is right for his plan: he orders the men at work to slacken their speed. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. The Romans seized this opportunity and moved closer to the city. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. "Caesar's Commentaries in Latin : Books I-iv, Paperback by Caesar, Julius; Thomas, Tom, ISBN 1453887954, ISBN-13 9781453887950, Brand New, Free shipping Julius Caesar's own words about his conquest of Gaul and other historic events. He finds the German horses, unfortunately, not good enough for his purposes, so takes the horses away from the Romans and gives them to the German horsemen. Instead, they continued to fight and try to plunder the city. He reminds them that there will be reward once it is over. The next day the allies came closer and many were injured on the Roman fortifications, so they withdrew. At once he is called "King" by his supporters and soon manages alliance with other tribes, all of which agree that he is best suited to be their chief. He relented, reluctantly. [4.1] The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. Book VI of Caesar's description of his campaigns in Gaul deals with events of 53 BC, teh year after his major expedition to Britain. This is, of course, seen from the town and the muleteers are mistaken for the real cavalry. Caesar then finds sufficient supplies for his troops and decides first to march toward the Senones. Wary of sudden attack, though, Caesar explains to his men that the enemy has an advantage of position and, rather than appear rash, he moves the troops back to camp and prepares for the siege of the town. The Bellovaci, who intend to fight the Romans themselves, do not make up their quota of 10,000 but because of their regard for Commius they do send 2,000. The full work is split into eight sections, Book 1 to Book 8, each varying in size from approximately 5,000 to 15,000 words. The enemy hears of his approach, burns the town and all bridges approaching it, and moves to a position across the Seine from Labienus. Litaviccus, they decide, will make the initial move. The break in the narrative seems necessary and not simply a whim of the writer: Caesar must stop the war to settle the childish dispute among the Aedui. The Biturgies begged that Vercingetorix not burn their noblest city, Avaricum. The plan is accepted and, for the common good, private property rights vanish — all towns and homes in the foraging area are to be burned. He is easily swayed and so is his partner Litaviccus; both of them are ready to believe any rumor. He relates in a conference that the Romans have conquered by strategy, and by skill in laying siege, not by courage and, furthermore, no defense of the town was ever agreed to by him; thus the disaster is only due to the ignorance of the Bituriges. Caesar's decision is this: he orders all weapons surrendered and tells the Gauls to bring their chiefs out. At first, all was going well for the Romans in the conflict, but then fresh Gallic troops arrived. After Caesar's troops surrounded Vellaunodunum, the town sent out their ambassadors. Then, when their cavalry has fled, the archers are surrounded and killed. The Gauls on the city side of the Roman lines empty the Roman turrets by firing missiles, then fill in the trenches and tear down the breastworks by pulling them over with large hooks, but all is not theirs yet Caesar sends young Brutus with troops, and Gaius Fabius with even more, then goes himself with still more until the enemy is beaten back. This text is an excerpt from the book VII of The Gallic War, a book which narrates the military events of the year 52 BCE and which ends with the Roman victory at Alesia against Vercingetorix.Concerning the redaction of The Gallic War and of the book VII in particular, it remains a debated issue. Seeing that mighty Caesar is victorious, they seize those whom they think roused them to battle and bring them to Caesar, pleading for his acceptance of their surrender. Because a large part of his force is occupied getting food and timber, he reinforces his defense lines with sharpened stakes; anyone charging them will be instantly impaled. Thus they secretly consider war and send deputies to other states. The following is a summary of Book VII of De Bello Gallico, with some explanatory notes. The two armies thus move in parallel columns down opposite sides of the river. Finally, Book VII, the longest in Caesar's narrative, describes how, in 52 B.C., Caesar manages to withstand the revolt of fourteen of the Gallic tribes. But he is faced with a dilemma: if he sends for his legions, they might be attacked without their general and, if he goes to them, he might be betrayed by the tribes to whom he entrusts his personal safety. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). Next day he keeps two legions hidden and has the rest of his men march out, spacing the intervals so they will appear to the enemy to be the same number of troops as the day before. Finally, ending the day's engagement, Vercingetorix, as the victor, called off the fight for the day when new Roman legions arrived. Vercingetorix, son of the former Gallic chieftain, arouses his men to assemble and is soon joined by many other adventurers and soldiers. 41:48. This particular edition is in a Hardcover format. The Aedui ask Vercingetorix to join them to make plans for the war, but insist that they must have supreme command. Their hope is to stimulate to rebellion those Gauls who object to Roman rule. Moving quickly by night, the Roman general reaches the enemy's camp by morning, but he is unable to take it by surprise. He groups his legions together before the Arverni learn of his plans, but Vercingetorix' messengers bring news to their general and he moves his army back to the Bituriges, deciding to attack Gorgobina, a city of the Boii. Gallic walls, it is now explained, are made in overlapping units, filled with rubble on the inside and covered by large stones on the outside. Caesar then marched to Avaricum, a well-fortified town in the Biturgies' territory. Especially in the case of Avaricum, He could say the Romans didn't defeat them by valor but by a new technique the Gauls hadn't seen before, and besides, he might have said, he had wanted to torch Avaricum but had only left it standing because of the pleas of the Biturgies. audiobook, librivox, Latin literature, Caesar, Gaul, Gallic war. In addition, the stones protect it from fire. When Caesar finally reached Gergovia, he surprised the inhabitants. Removing #book# There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. 7.06-10 Sight Reading With the Professor. Because of this, there were skirmishes, although Vercingetorix was waiting for Gallic allies to join him before a full-fledged fight against Caesar's army. Vercingetorix was able to calm the other leaders despite all the recent disasters. At the beginning of the book, there is a section called The Life of Caesar. Many of Caesar's troops did not hear when he called for a retreat. They are so confused, in fact, that after they find themselves in trouble, they are unable to recognize the friendly Aeduan forces that come to help them. The Romans put torturous devices on the outside that could injure an army pressing against it. Labienus bravely encourages his soldiers, then joins in the combat himself. The Gauls hope to survive only because they have the cooperation of the local tribes. These men, however, have been instructed by Caesar to say that the Roman army is weakened by hunger and that Caesar has decided to withdraw if he is not successful in three days. The day for war nears and Vercingetorix camps some sixteen miles from Avaricum so that his scouts can keep him informed. To deal with Vercingetorix' attack against the Allobroges, Caesar sent for cavalry and light-armed infantry help from the Germanic tribes beyond the Rhine. Summary. Verciugetorix' retreat troubles Caesar. In the dispute over the magistracy they were on opposing sides. Caesar has anticipated just such a move. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. The Tenth Legion, which he had accompanied on the charge, stops as instructed, but the others do not hear the trumpet and they continue charging. Caesar divided his troops in three, too, and fought back, with the Germans obtaining a hilltop formerly in Arverni possession. The Aeduans who have not heard that Litaviccus was a traitor act on his first advice and, according to the initial plans, plunder and kill many Roman citizens in their midst and enslave many others. They burned the town so the Romans couldn't feed themselves from it and began to build up armed garrisons around the river. By the end of Book VII Caesar has put down the Gallic revolt. About 800 in Caesar's reckoning escaped to reach Vercingetorix. Pompey and M. Crassus were consuls), those Germans [called] the Usipetes, and likewise the Tenchtheri, with a great number of men, crossed the Rhine, not far from the place at which that river discharges itself into the sea. As quickly as possible the tribunes of the Seventh Legion bring their troops around to Camulogenus' rear, but even so he refuses to back up. While construction of siege works is underway, a cavalry battle disrupts the peace and the Romans begin to falter. Their next move is to send 10,000 men into the town. He then goes to the Aedui and accepts their submission to Rome. His decision seems traitorous, for after Roman defeat, an even brighter future is promised for the Aeduan king. Vercingetorix decided the time was right to attack the Roman forces whom he judged to be inadequate in number, as well as encumbered with their baggage. With arrangements made and Trebonius left in charge, Caesar set out for Genabum, a Carnute town that had been preparing to send troops to help Vellaunodum fight, Caesar. Halfway there, messengers from Fabius report that the camp has been attacked by a full force of invaders and that many of the defenders have been wounded. A date is set for the beginning of their campaign and the meeting is adjourned. Then Caesar offers prizes to those who mount the wall first and, that done, gives the signal, and the troops charge the wall. He orders the packs piled and the men to ready their weapons. The enemy intends to keep the Romans from building bridges to span the river, but Caesar sees the danger in their strategy. He then orders his troops to call in a thirty-day supply of grain and forage. Suddenly the Romans find themselves fighting on all fronts; they must spread out more than is militarily desirable. Lucius Fabius, a centurion in the Eighth Legion, has sworn to be first to climb the wall and is assisted up by three of his men. There are a few more skirmishes during the next few days, but no major battles because Vercingetorix cannot be lured to level ground. All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who … Next stop was the Aedui, one of Rome's main allies in Gaul, and where two of Caesar's legions were wintering. The Aedui are distressed at being forced to follow Vercingetorix, but are bound to their allies; thus Eporedorix and Viridomarus unwillingly obey the chosen leader. Caesar, mean-while, prepares to attack the town with a ramp and towers. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. After losing three cities, Vercingetorix calls a convention of his followers and tells them their tactics must be changed; they must prevent the Romans from getting forage, a fairly easy task at this time of year when there is virtually no forage in the fields; everything has been cut and placed within the homesteads. Many, of course, do not freely join the rebellion, but are drawn in by political intrigues of various kinds; even the usually faithful Aedui turn against Rome. Camulogenus, the leader of the enemy force, commands the group. The army lay down its arms and submitted themselves. The Germans pursued the Gallic enemy to the river where Vercingetorix was stationed with his infantry. and any corresponding bookmarks? Vercingetorix, meanwhile, situates his army along a ridge near the town. The enemy general, puffed with pride, marches down the other side. Caesar and his contemporaries makes impossible claims about the number of Gauls killed (over a million), while claiming almost zero Roman casualties. In addition, there are two known indexing errors, both of which exist in the printed copy and the transcriber was unable to resolve their accuracy: Gallic Wars, Book 7: Skips chapter 89 ; Gallic Wars, Book 8: Skips chapter 46 Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), or Bellum Civile, is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. Caesar places troops among the Ruteni in the province and among others who border on enemy territory and orders many of the new troops he brings with him from Rome to gather in the territory of the Helvii, bordering on the Arverni. Vercingetorix then brings forward Roman prisoners whom he has tortured and who, he believes, will support his theories. Caesar spared them and marched back towards Gergovia. 04:11. Caesar hears of these moves, but tells their deputies that he will not have his goodwill toward the Aedui swayed by the ignorance of the common people, for he fears a greater rebellion in Gaul and wants to pull back from Gergovia and concentrate his forces again; most of all, he does not want his departure to look like a retreat. Vercingetorix assembles many of his troops about ten miles from the Romans, then tells his commanders that the Romans are fleeing, but that they will return and says that they must attack them en route and shame them by taking their equipment. The particular course takes up the passages required by the AP exam from Caesar's Gallic Wars. Instead, he simply had Eporedorix and Viridomarus ride out with the troops and let themselves be seen by the Gauls, who immediately return to the Roman side at the sight of the two men. Convictolitavis is seemingly ungrateful for Caesar's decision. But, because they have committed great crimes, they are afraid that they will be severely dealt with. Then he repairs the bridge the enemy had earlier cut down and marches to Lutetia. bookmarked pages associated with this title. Perhaps because they lacked the support of the Aedui, the Biturgies gave in to Vercingetorix. The text indexing is from the printed book, and may or may not match that found in the Loeb's Classical Library. About Caesar: Gallic War VI. The Romans, however, are prepared and take their assigned posts, fire their missiles, and hold off the Gauls. When Caesar heard of these developments he thought he should put down the revolt quickly before the armed force grew too large. There, they overcome the enemy scouts and cross the river safely. In the next book, which deals with the year 57, we visit the Belgians, who liv… While Caesar's men went into town to gather up the arms and horses, Vercingetorix' army appeared on the horizon. He sees now that the enemy's camp is empty, so moves his men from the larger to the smaller camp and tells the commanders to keep the troops under control because everything depends on speed and surprise. The stronghold of Alesia is atop a hill, well protected by natural obstacles, with a plain in front of the town and steep hills on all other sides. Caesar secures his baggage on a hill, then leaves two legions to guard it while he takes the rest of the army in pursuit. Book VII. The plan is harsh, but the alternative in defeat is harsher: Families will be made slaves and soldiers will be slaughtered. Caesar then took some of his men with him and rode to the army of the Aedui and presented to them those very men they thought the Romans had killed. When Caesar's troops, for instance, capture a strategic hill of the Gauls, they ruin success by being too enthusiastic and charging against orders. With great effort, Caesar's troops arrive in camp before sunrise. The town is quickly taken; few of the enemy manage to escape, and Caesar orders his men to plunder and burn the town, then moves his army across the river to the borders of the Bituriges. He takes many troops with him, and when they are about 30 miles from Gergovia he stops them and tells them that many Aeduans have been put to death by the Romans and that, to gain revenge and safety, they must join the Arverni at Gergovia. from your Reading List will also remove any But his current task is made doubly difficult because he is pressed on one side by the brave Bellovaci and on the other by Camulogenus' army. As promised, Vercingetorix attempts to get the other Gauls to join the war. They try to undermine the ramp and set it afire, and attempt to kill the soldiers doing the building. Fabius expects another attack on the following day. He also tells them to send him all their horsemen plus 10,000 infantry troops, which he needs to guard his grain supply. They next find a safe camp and send for the remainder of the army. The Aedui, Rome's allies, came to Caesar with their political problem: their tribe was led by a king who held power for a year, but this year there were two contenders, Cotus and Convitolitanis. These troops go only as far as the Loire river, stay a few days, then come home and report to the Romans that they fear the Bituriges too greatly to attempt war. Vercingetorix and Caesar are the main figures in Book VII of De Bello Gallico, Caesar's narrative about his wars in Gaul, although the Roman allies, the Aedui, also play a large role. If victory is to be theirs, Avaricum must be held. Chapter 7 In the mean time Lucterius the Cadurcan, having been sent into the country of the Ruteni, gains over that state to the Arverni. The others beg for mercy. While the battle rages, a messenger arrives and reports to the Aedui that their army is in Caesar's power. Sizable units captured include Cotus and other generals, including Cavarillus and Eporedorix. Others worked on building the fortifications, which meant Caesar's troop strength was diminished. There, like sheep herded into a fold, the enemy is trapped. The enemy is surprised at Caesar's determined efforts and are totally confused. Between such arguments and bribes made to the Aedui by the allies of Vercingetorix, the Aedui were convinced. At the same time the Gallic cavalry attacks the Roman lines farther down the plain. Many of Caesar's enemies were slaughtered, Vercingetorix' cavalry was routed, and some of the tribal leaders were captured. Convictolitavis is bribed, but there is the implication that he is largely influenced by a desire for greater power, for even though he is in office because of Roman authority, he says he would prefer that Rome had to come to the Aedui for assistance rather than vice versa. Too, they are especially anxious to avenge those Romans who were killed at Cenahum. ), Parisii, Pictones, Cadurci, Turones, Aulerci, Lemovice, the Ruteni, and others to his own armed forces. As he suspected, just before midnight, the men of the town begin to slip away. Still, their number is vast — almost 300,000 troops are requisitioned. The enemy fights with new hope because they see burning the Roman turrets that once gave cover to the working parties. Inside the gates of Noviodunum, the people panic. Heading towards the Boii, Caesar left two legions at Agendicum. He tried to ally the Biturgies, but they resisted and sent ambassadors to the Aedui for help against Vercingetorix. Thus one of the most difficult problems facing Caesar is the ease with which one ambitious or dissatisfied local politician can incite an otherwise peaceful state to rebellion. The Gauls are overjoyed for it seems that their cavalry is sure to win. The Romans pitched camp and when the townspeople tried to escape at night via a bridge across the Loire River, Caesar's troops took possession of the town, pillaged and burned it, and then headed across the Loire bridge into the Biturgies' territory. Their commanders attempt to restrain them, but the troops are excited at the prospect of an easy victory. Noviodunum is an Aeduan town, well situated on the banks of the Loire. The Arverni send representatives and agree to do the same. Meanwhile, Vercingetorix' ambassador, Lucterius, continued to gain allies. And Caesar quite deliberately presents him in this way because if Vercingetorix is shown to be a superior leader; then Caesar's success against him is even more impressive. The job is enthusiastically completed and two legions cross the river. Caesar split his army and gave Labienus 4 legions to lead north, towards the Senones and Parisii while he led 6 legions into Arverni country towards Gergovia, which was on the banks of the Allier. Satisfied with his strategy, Caesar orders that the retreat be sounded. The Biturgies were dependents of the Aedui and the Aedui were allies of Rome ("Brothers and Kinsmen of the Roman People" 1.33). In this way, they destroyed 20 of their own Biturgies towns. Vercingetorix has the escapees assigned to their separate tribal camps along his lines. But Caesar plans one more conquest before dealing with Vercingetorix. Litaviccus has been received by the Aedui at Bibracte, has been joined by Convictolitavis, and has sent representatives to make a treaty with Vercingetorix. The Bituriges, for example, would have remained on Caesar's side had not the Adenans failed to help them. 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